Slave in form v. Slave in fact

“I now resolved that, however long I might remain a slave in form, the day had passed forever when I could be a slave in fact.”

Douglas was able to learn how to read and write, which is a power that brings him intellectually equal to his masters. Though he may physically be bound by his status, mentally he can think and critique like someone who is not enslaved.


Connections between Douglas and Emerson/Whitman

Fredrick Douglas’s memoir is a recalling of his upbringing and all the events that led up to his eventual escape to New York, where he was able to become free and get married. Prior to that, Douglas had to take action in order to gain his new life. This compares to Emerson because Emerson’s argument is that the only way to live is to take action, and you cannot idle and lay around because without action, there is no learning. Douglas had to learn to read, and he had to forth with escaping to earn freedom. Therefore, Douglas contrasts to Whitman, who promotes loafing and lounging as the best way to live.

“The American Scholar” connected to “Leaves of Grass”

When the mind is braced by labor and invention, the page of whatever book we read becomes luminous with manifold allusion. Every sentence is doubly significant, and the sense of our author is as broad as the world. – “The American Scholar”

These lines from Emerson’s “The American Scholar” are connected to Whitman’s “Leaves of Grass” by its contrasting approach on how to conduct in life. Emerson is promoting “labor and invention,” and suggesting that one must perform some sort of action in order to experience the fruitfulness of life. The books that we read (reading is to do nothing) are supplements and make that experience much richer, but they cannot replace it. According to Whitman, however, to loaf is to have full enjoyment. To lay against one another and to experience that intimacy is the ideal way to embrace life.

Where Nature Plays a Transformative Role

A narrative in which nature plays a transformative role is in the book Holes.

In the book, Stanley is sent to Camp Green Lake after being wrongfully accused of stealing a pair of famous sneakers. At the camp, Stanley befriends a guy named Zero who he teaches to how to read and write in exchange of Zero helping Stanley dig his holes. The camp staff finds out, Zero runs away, and Stanley finds him in the mountains alone. In the end, they find a suitcase that belongs to Stanley’s family, but they are captured by the warden and she claims the suitcase belongs to her. Zero reveals that it has Stanley’s great-grandfarther’s name on it, proving it belongs to his family.

In the scene where Stanley finds Zero in the mountains, nature plays a pivotal role. Zero and Stanley survive off of onions that they found, which are connected to Stanley’s family’s past. During this time, Stanley sings song that he doesn’t realize lifts a curse that was placed on his family. After they regain their strength, they are able to find the treasure, which is the climax of the story.